altahrir, news of Islam, Muslims, Arab Spring and special Palestine

A site of KhamakarPress ©

Posts Tagged ‘Libye

Libyan PM Blames Turkey And Qatar For Forcing Political Islam On His Country

leave a comment »

Certain states aim to impose political Islam in Libya, Libyan Prime Minister told Sputnik in an interview. The country’s internationally recognized government is in need of arms to fight militants and seeks international airstrikes targeting the Islamic State extremist group.

Mideast Libya

In this Saturday, Feb. 21, 2015 photo, Libyan soldiers try to fix a weapon that jammed during clashes with militants on the frontline in Al Ajaylat, 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Tripoli, Libya. Army forces in Libya have been fighting Islamic and tribal militias since last September

OBRUK (Sputnik) – Qatar and Turkey are to blame for forcing political Islam on Libya, the prime minister of the internationally recognized Libyan government, Abdullah Thani, told Sputnik.

“There are states wishing to impose political Islam on us. Turkey and Qatar, for example, are attempting to impose it on Libya despite the people’s rejection,” Thani said.

That rejection was exemplified in the recent parliamentary elections, the prime minister added.

Thani acknowledged the willingness to cooperate with activists of political Islam as an integral part of the political landscape in the country.

“However, partnership does not imply hegemony, and not only in Libya. Qatar and Turkey have that experience in Egypt, where they strongly support the Muslim Brotherhood,” Thani stressed.

The internationally recognized Libyan government seeks international airstrikes targeting the Islamic State (IS) extremist group, not against political rivals, Prime Minister Abdullah Thani continued in an interview with Sputnik.

The Arab League pledged military assistance during an extraordinary session requested by the internationally-recognized Tobruk-based government last week. The association ruled out targeted anti-IS airstrikes over Libyan territory.

“We asked for airstrikes on IS, not on our political rivals,” Thani clarified.

The prime minister argued for surgical strikes in coordination with the Libyan army because “all parties agree that IS must be stopped.”

The northeast port city of Tobruk government’s call for help came as Islamic State gained control over the northern Libyan city of Sirte, killing up to 200 people in mid-August.

Libya is in need of arms to fight militants and does not consider foreign military assistance to be an encroachment on the sovereignty of the country, according to Abdullah Thani.

“We need weapons and ammunition… But we do not believe military assistance is akin to foreign interference,” Thani argued.

The prime minister said that a lack of weapons and an abundance of people willing to take up arms “creates an imbalance.”

“The international community helped us overthrow the [Gaddafi] regime, but did not help in building a new state,” Thani explained to Sputnik.

Libya has been in a state of civil war since the overthrow of longtime leader Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 and is now split into two rival governments. The Tobruk-based government led by Thani is recognized internationally. The country’s capital of Tripoli and adjacent western areas are controlled by self-proclaimed authorities.

On Wednesday,the UN envoy to Libya, Bernadino Leon, told the UN Security Council the rival Libyan authorities were in the “final stages” of forming a national unity government.

(Source / 28.08.2015)

Written by altahrir

August 28, 2015 at 9:55 pm

Posted in Politics

Tagged with ,

Arab League to hold extraordinary meeting on Tuesday after Libya’s request for action on ISIS

leave a comment »

Ashour Bourashed, Libya's delegate to the Arab League, looks on during Monday's emergency meeting (AFP) (photo: )

Ashour Bourashed, Libya’s delegate to the Arab League, looks on during Monday’s emergency meeting

The Arab League will hold an extraordinary meeting Tuesday to discuss a Libyan request for Arab countries to take action against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) group in Sirte, a diplomat said Sunday.

The internationally recognized Libyan government based in the country’s east asked for the meeting on Saturday urging Arab countries to “adopt measures to confront” the jihadist ISIS group.

Later that day, it issued a statement calling for Arab air strikes against the militants, but it was not clear if it submitted a formal demand to the Arab League and whether the bloc would discuss such action.

Tuesday’s meeting will be held by permanent delegates to the Arab bloc, which is headquartered in Cairo, Jordan’s ambassador to Egypt and Arab League representative Bisher Khasawneh told reporters.

ISIS militants had seized control of the Libyan coastal city of Sirte in June, gaining another foothold in the chaotic country torn between rival governments.

Battles to oust the jihadists raged since Tuesday, although the fighting was reported to have subsided on Sunday.

The militants beheaded 12 local militiamen who had been battling them in the east of the city and hung their bodies on crosses, official news agency LANA reported on Saturday.

Egypt and the United Arab Emirates had conducted a few air strikes in Libya over the past few years, targeting ISIS militants and militias opposed to the internationally recognized government.

(Source / 16.08.2015)

Written by altahrir

August 16, 2015 at 9:15 pm

Posted in Politics

Tagged with ,

Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam sentenced to death by court in Libya

leave a comment »

Former heir apparent and other senior members of one-time Libyan regime sentenced in Tripoli after controversial trial criticised by human rights groups

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the son of Libya’s former dictator, Muammar Gaddafi, has been sentenced to death by a court in Tripoli in a mass trial of former regime figures widely criticised by human rights groups and observers.

Saif Gaddafi, once seen as his father’s heir apparent, was condemned to death along with eight other figures from the former dictatorship, including the former intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi and Gaddafi’s last prime minister, Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi.

The trial, which opened in Tripoli in April last year, has been mired in controversy after human rights groups and the international criminal court questioned its standards.

There is uncertainty about whether the sentence will be carried out, as Gaddafi is being held by a militia in the mountain town of Zintan that is opposed to LibyaDawn, the militia coalition in control of Tripoli.

Gaddafi has been held in Zintan since he was caught trying to flee Libya in the aftermath of the 2011 revolution. The militia has refused to hand him over to Tripoli.

He was accused in the trial of recruiting mercenaries, attacking civilian targets from the air, forming armed groups and shooting into crowds of demonstrators. Among the charges he was convicted of were incitement to murder and rape.


Muammar Gaddafi-era officials wait for their trial in a prison cage in Tripoli

The ICC indicted Gaddafi, along with Senussi, for war crimes and crimes against humanity but judges in The Hague refused Libya permission to try him. However, the ICC gave permission for Senussi to be tried in Libya, and the former intelligence chief – held in custody in Tripoli – was one of 28 defendants in court. Four of the Muammar Gaddafi-era figures were cleared of charges.

Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Bar Association issued statements criticising the proceedings, with IBA director Dr Mark Ellis saying several trial monitors were arrested and questioned by security forces.

Gaddafi’s ICC-appointed lawyer, John Jones, condemned the trial process. “It’s a complete show trial, a farce,” he said. “This trial is effectively being run by Libya Dawn militias.”

Jones said the videolink set up in Tripoli to allow Gaddafi to be tried had worked on only three occasions, leaving him in the dark about the proceedings. “They [Tripoli prosecutors] are relying on confessions from defendants extracted by torture. It was condemned by Libya’s own ministry of justice as illegal.”

In London, Senussi’s 17-year-old daughter, Salma, said her father had been denied a proper trial. “It’s like a nightmare every day waking up fearing to hear this. I ask the world for only one thing: for my father to have the law. We just want proper justice.”

Salma – in London with Senussi’s wife, Fatma, and his nine-year-old son after fleeing Libya – said her mother was too distressed to talk but was upset with the ICC judges for ruling that Senussi was getting a fair trial. She said: “I am angry with the international criminal court; it did not give my father a chance.”

Senussi was convicted in absentia in France in 1999 concerning the bombing of a French airliner over Niger in 1989 in which 170 people were killed. However, for ordinary Libyans, his name will always be associated with the 1996 massacre of 1,200 inmates at Tripoli’s Abu Salim prison.

Senussi’s London-based lawyer, Ben Emmerson QC, said “extreme fear, insecurity and intimidation” had dominated the trial. “The death sentence just handed down against Abdullah al-Senussi is the most deplorable decision in a case in which every one of his basic rights to a fair trial and due process have been completely ignored,” he said.

There are unlikely to be immediate executions after Sadiq al-Sur, head of the attorney general’s investigation department, said lawyers could appeal against the sentences. The nine death sentences are in two parts, with each defendant sentenced to die by firing squad and also fined 50,000 dinars (£23,481).


Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmoudi, former prime minister of Libya, arrives for a hearing at a courtroom in Tripoli in September 2013

Civil war engulfed Libya last July, with Libya Dawn militias seizing the capital and the internationally recognised government fleeing to eastern Libya and losing control of the trial process.

The ICC chief prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, said in February that although Libya Dawn militias now controlled Tripoli, she had no evidence the case against Senussi – which Libya was given permission to hold in 2013 – had been affected.

Her office said in a letter to Senussi’s lawyers: “Despite the fact that the groups allegedly associated with Libya Dawn are in physical control of Tripoli and therefore the judicial and correctional facility system, there does not appear to have been any significant disruption to the trial proceedings.”

The verdicts, after a chaotic and secretive trial process, underline the failure of Libya to implement the democracy promised in 2011 when, with assistance from Nato air strikes, it overthrew the Gaddafi dictatorship. The proceedings are also a blow to the prestige of the ICC and its decision that Libya was fit to hold the trial.

Divisions have emerged over the conduct of the trial between the ICC and the United Nations, which ordered the court to investigate Libya war crimes in 2011.

The UN support mission for Libya, which monitored the trial until it left the country with the onset of civil war last summer, reiterated its belief on Tuesday that the case had failed to meet international standards.

The UN catalogued a list of failings, including reported intimidation of witnesses, a lack of access to lawyers and no presentation of witnesses or documents in open court.

UN officials said the authorities in Tripoli had failed to ensure that trial sessions were broadcast in their entirety, despite Libyan law being amended to allow it.

Claudio Cordone, from the UN mission, said: “Given these shortcomings, it is particularly worrisome that the court has handed down nine death sentences.”

Controversy at the trial reached a new level in June 2014 when a UN trial monitor was taken prisoner by the militia guarding the courtroom and accused of black magic. Although the monitor was later released without charge, it set the tone for the trial.

The ICC, meanwhile, has already faced criticism for achieving only two war crimes convictions in its 13-year-history, while South Africa last month defied its orders and refused to arrest Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, indicted for genocide, during his visit to Pretoria.

Its most high-profile case, against Kenyan president Uhuru Kenyatta, who was accused in connection with post-election violence that killed 1,200 people in 2007 and 2008, collapsed last year due to lack of evidence.

(Source / 28.07.2015)

Written by altahrir

July 28, 2015 at 7:00 pm

Posted in Revolution Libye

Tagged with ,

Expulsion from Derna bastion may show limits for Islamic State in Libya

leave a comment »

(An armed motorcade belonging to members of Derna's Islamic Youth Council, consisting of former members of militias from the town of Derna, drive along a road in Derna, eastern Libya October 3, 2014. The group pledged allegiance to the Islamic State on October 3, 2014 local media reported. Picture taken October 3, 2014. REUTERS/Stringer)

An armed motorcade of Derna’s Islamic Youth Council, which has pledged allegiance to Islamic State, drive along a road in Derna, eastern Libya October 3, 2014

Islamic State jihadists have exploited widespread chaos to gain a foothold in Libya, but their ejection from an eastern city suggests they may not achieve a Iraq-style takeover due to strong local rivals and the absence of sectarian divisions.

Last month, local Islamist fighters reinforced by local civilians ousted Islamic State militants from Derna on Libya’s eastern Mediterranean coast, one of two bastions the jihadists had established in the North African oil-producing country.

It was the first setback in Libya for the ultra-violent jihadist movement that has sent in combatants and clerics from Tunisia, Yemen and other Arab states to try repeat its success in Iraq and Syria, where it has captured vast territories and proclaimed a “caliphate” based on medieval religious precepts.

Islamic State (IS) has benefited from Libya’s anarchy. Two rival governments are fighting each other and unable to gain the upper hand while former rebel groups that helped topple Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 compete for power, creating a security vacuum.

But IS was driven out of Derna after seven people were killed at a protest against the influx of foreign jihadists and the killing of a commander of the local Abu Salim Martyrs Brigade, allied with a former anti-Gaddafi militia in the town.

A number of angry residents joined the Abu Salim Martyrs to help them expel IS from Derna, an Islamist hotspot even during Gaddafi’s 42-year rule in which he suppressed political Islam.

The Sunni Islamic State has drawn considerable grassroots support in Iraq and Syria by milking longstanding Sunni-Shi’ite Muslim sectarian enmities. But this does not work in Libya, an exclusively Sunni country where local Sunni armed factions and tribes regard Islamic State as an infiltrator and competitor.

“People had had enough of Daesh,” said a Derna resident, using a derogatory Arabic acronym for Islamic State, also known as ISIS and ISIL. “The Abu Salim Brigade has enjoyed some support going back to the (anti-Gaddafi) revolution.”

Mattia Toaldo, policy fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations, said Islamic State would now probably focus on its other Libya power base — Sirte, Gaddafi’s hometown on the country’s central coast where IS has won unusual support from Gaddafi loyalists opposed to Libya’s jostling new rulers.

IS insurgents have attacked oil fields south of the central city and kidnapped some nine foreign workers. They also executed 21 Egyptian Christians near Sirte and stormed a luxury hotel in the capital Tripoli, killing five foreigners.

Toaldo said he expected the jihadists would try to set up checkpoints at a strategic central junction where the east-west coastal highway links with a passage to Sabha, a city in Libya’s far southern desert. “They would be able to ask for a lot of protection money (there),” he said.

Unlike in Iraq and Syria, Islamic State has been unable to earn millions by selling oil on the black market because it is dominated by Libyans. IS therefore relies on ransoms paid for abducted prisoners and on state salaries paid to local members in Libya, where most adults remain on the state payroll.


Islamic State might also try tap into grievances in the impoverished south. Neither rival government has any authority in the remote, desolate area where dozens have been killed since last week in clashes between two tribes, the Tuareg and Tebu.

“Islamic State-linked militants may seek to take advantage of feelings of marginalisation in the southwest, particularly among members of the Tuareg ethnic group, to recruit fighters and hold territory,” said Geoffrey Howard, Middle East and North Africa analyst at London-based Global Risk Analysis.

As for Derna, Islamic State has confirmed in a video that it has pulled out its fighters. But the fighting is not over yet.

Military units loyal to Libya’s internationally recognised government based in the east since losing control of Tripoli a year ago to a rival group said they had now surrounded Derna.

“Islamic State aren’t many and they don’t have petrol to move around,” said Abdul Karim Sabra, a local military spokesman. “They don’t have military vehicles either. They get around in fertilizer trucks.”

But clashes between Islamic state and eastern army units aligned with the internationally recognised government outside Derna, and several car bombs going off inside the city, killing 10 people and blamed by residents on Islamic State, suggest the military encirclement has not been effective.

Islamic State can always seek refuge in the Green Mountain hinterland — a hideout for independence hero Omar al-Mukhtar for years when fighting the then-Italian colonial regime.

Since the eastern army units and the Abu Salim fighters treat each other as enemies, and as long as these regional military forces do not try to venture into Derna, it may well remain a playground for radical Islamists.

“It’s a crowded field,” said Frederic Wehrey, Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. “Everything in Libya is fragmented, everything is localised, so it’s difficult for any group to expand.”

It also remains to be seen whether life will improve for people in Derna. “Shops and banks have reopened (since IS pulled out) but there is lack of medicine in hospitals,” said the local resident, who asked not to be named for his own safety.

(Source / 25.07.2015)

Written by altahrir

July 25, 2015 at 7:42 pm

Posted in Revolution Libye

Tagged with ,

Rising Out of Chaos: The Islamic State in Libya

leave a comment »

Article of THURSDAY, MARCH 5, 2015

Recent attacks in Libya by the so-called Islamic State, including the brutal slaughter of Egyptian Copts, the Corinthia Hotel attacks, car bombings in Qubbah that killed at least 45 people, and an attack on the Iranian embassy, have brought the spread of extremism in Libya to the forefront. While the Islamic State has intensified its activity in recent weeks, its spread into Libya began early in 2014 as Libyan jihadists began to return from Syria.

Jihadi groups in Libya were already deeply fragmented and localized, but the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria in 2013 and 2014 sparked new debates,eventually dividing the Libyan jihadis between supporters of the Islamic State and supporters of al-Qaeda and its regional affiliates—mainly al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in North Africa and the Nusra Front in Syria.


Libyans had already begun traveling to fight in Syria in 2011, joining existing jihadi factions or starting their own. In 2012, one group of Libyans in Syria declared the establishment of the Battar Brigade in a statement laden with anti-Shia sectarianism. The Battar Brigade founders also thanked “the citizens of Derna,” a city in northeastern Libya long known as a hotbed of radical Islamism, for their support for the struggle in Syria.

Later, the Battar Brigade fighters in Syria would pledge loyalty to the Islamic State, and fight for it in both Syria and Iraq, including against its al-Qaeda rivals. In April 2014, the Battar Brigade announced the “martyrdom” of 25 of its fighters in a Nusra Front suicide attack on an Islamic State location.

In the spring of 2014, many Battar Brigade fighters returned to Libya. In Derna, they reorganized themselves as the Islamic Youth Shura Council (IYSC). In September, an Islamic State delegation, including the Yemeni Abu al-Bara al-Azdi and the Saudi Abu Habib al-Jazrawi, arrived in Libya. After being received by the IYSC, they collected pledges of allegiance to the Islamic State’s self-appointed caliph, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, from IYSC-aligned fighters in Derna. They then declared eastern Libya to be a province of the Islamic State, calling it Wilayat Barqa, or the Cyrenaica Province.


Even before the return of fighters from Syria became an issue, and long before the declaration of Wilayat Barqa, there were tensions between Islamists in eastern Libya. Many disputes concerned the Islamic legitimacy of Libya’s transitional governing authorities. Many former rebels—including Islamists—saw the post-Qaddafi government as broadly acceptable, and wanted to influence it from the inside. But the most hard-line factions condemned it for being based on democratic elections, relying on former members of Muammar Qaddafi’s regime, and failing to apply Sharia law.

The presence and influence of the Islamic State continues to spread in the civil war chaos of post-Qaddafi Libya, inserting itself into an already messy conflict between the rival Operation Dignity and Operation Dawn.
For example, in July 2011, Mustafa Abdul Jalil—a Qaddafi-era minister and pragmatic Islamist who defected and became the leader of Libya’s Western-backed National Transitional Council—visited Derna. An Islamist militia known as the Abu Slim Martyrs Brigades (ASMB) offered to guard him, but shortly after the visit, a religious ruling was published on the influential jihadi site Minbar al-Tawhid in response to a question about the propriety of protecting Abdul Jalil. The ruling condemned the National Transitional Council, and asked jihadists to “be guardians of [religious] doctrine, not protectors of those who seek to displace the Sharia.” Another Derna-based group of Islamists known as Ansar al-Sharia (not to be confused with the Benghazi-based jihadi faction of the same name) agreed with this hard-line view. Tensions later increased, especially after the ASMB was criticized by more hardline Islamists for protecting the July 2012 General National Congress elections, which Ansar al-Sharia viewed as un-Islamic.

The arrival in Derna of Libyan jihadists from Syria added to the conflict. Initially, many of the returnees worked with Ansar al-Sharia against the ASMB. In May 2014,Mohammed Boubilal, an ASMB leader, was killed when his car exploded. Ansar al-Sharia in Derna and the IYSC were prime suspects. A few days later, Moatazz al-Miraash, reportedly a leader in both Ansar al-Sharia and the IYSC, was shot dead outside his house in Derna. Then, perhaps most significantly, one of the IYSC’s leading members, Mahdi Saad al-Ghaythi, was shot dead, reportedly while trying to bomb the house of a military leader in the ASMB.

The IYSC’s declaration of fealty to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and the Islamic State further divided Ansar al-Sharia in Derna, with some members supporting the group while others followed al-Qaeda and professed allegiance to its leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.


In May 2014, the retired General Khalifa Hifter launched a foreign-backed military operation dubbed Operation Dignity, which sought to purge Islamist forces from the Benghazi area. This spurred a temporary closing of the ranks among the Islamists, particularly because Hifter initially drew no distinction between Islamist groups that maintained relations with Libya’s Western-backed government, such as the Libya Shield One, and extremist anti-state jihadis like Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi.

The disparate Islamist militias combined their firepower and entered into a nominal alliance with other anti-Hifter forces. Even though many of these groups pursue Islamist politics, they are often more defined by their regional roots, with many based in western Libya, including in the cities of Tripoli and Misrata, or among ethnic Amazigh (Berber) groups. Together, Hifter’s opponents have called themselves Operation Dawn.

Libyan politics is now dominated by the struggle between Hifter’s Dignity coalition and the rival Dawn forces. The political vacuum created by the civil war, and the perception among Libyan Islamists that Hifter is a more threatening common enemy, have enabled the Islamic State to grow. Groups that would otherwise be compelled to confront the Islamic State are no longer marshaling all their resources to do so.

This dynamic is especially evident in eastern Libya. Despite their doctrinal and ideological divergences, the rejectionist al-Qaeda and Islamic State affiliated groups—as well as more pragmatic Islamist militias—have all fought together against Hifter’s forces in and around Benghazi, even as they have kept jostling for power in Derna and other areas. In August 2014, for example, the ASMB announced the death of eight of its members in Benghazi, and in mid-September, a senior IYSC member was also reportedly killed in the city.


In addition to the declaration of Wilayat Barqa in eastern Libya, the Islamic State appears to be prioritizing its expansion in the west. On February 19, 2015, a convoy of Islamic State vehicles arrived at Sirte in central Libya and declared it Wilayat Tarablus (Tripoli Province). The group later moved to al-Nawfaliyah in the southwest, but withdrew on February 20 in the face of Egyptian airstrikes. There are also reports of growing Islamic State cells in Tripoli, Sabratha, and in the desert region south of Sirte.

The propaganda value of such expansion is clear. It has facilitated high-profile attacks like the assault on the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli and, more recently, attacks on oil fields like al-Bahi and al-Dahra located south of Sirte. All of this serves to raise the profile of Wilayat Tarablus, attract potential foreign recruits, particularly from Tunisia, and put additional pressure on Operation Dawn factions in the west of Libya.

Sirte is an especially attractive site for Islamic State expansion given the long-standing presence there of fighters from the Benghazi-based faction of Ansar al-Sharia (both the Derna and the Benghazi branches of Ansar al-Sharia have been listed as terrorist groups by the United Nations). According to some reports, the Islamic State even dispatched a leading cleric, the Bahraini Turki al-Binali, to the city last year to win converts. Many Islamic State recruits in Sirte are reportedly defectors from Ansar al-Sharia; some are from Benghazi in the east, some are from Misrata, and some are local youth from the Furjan tribe.

While there have been many reports about the Islamic State exerting total control over Sirte, especially after the university in the city closed, the actual extent of its presence is more limited. Sources inside the city say that the Islamic State probably has less than 100 vehicles in the city, and its fighters probably number between 200 and 400. Misratan militias, along with the Sirte Security Committee, are in control of key checkpoints and roads leading into the city.

The Islamic State recently began staging attacks further south in what its members call Wilayat Fezzan. It announced its first attack there in early January 2015, when it killed nine members of the rival militia known as Southern Shield in Sukna. In mid-January, it was reported that the Islamic State had killed four soldiers in the Third Force, another militia, near Jufra. And in early February, the Islamic State attacked the Mabruk oil field near Jufra, and executed several workers.


The most crucial issue for the Islamic State’s future expansion plans may be the fate of Misrata. Given its proximity to Sirte, Misrata is directly in the Islamic State’s sights—and in its way. Any move by the jihadist group into Tripoli and the west of Libya will have to confront Misrata’s powerful militias. Already there have been several propaganda overtures by the Islamic State to the city, including an open letter from Abu Moadh al-Barqawi addressed to the “youth of Misrata.” Barqawi asked them to sacrifice their lives for God instead of for democracy and the parliamentary government backed by Operation Dawn, and urged the Misratan fighters to repent and join the Islamic State.

Reactions within Operation Dawn to the Islamic State’s advances have been split, which is perhaps no surprise, considering the loose and fluid structure of the Operation Dawn alliance. On the one hand, Libyan Islamists have stepped up their verbal attacks on the Islamic State. For example, Dar al-Ifta—Libya’s highest religious authority—has denounced the Islamic State’s “terrorist” actions as diverging from Islam. But on the other hand, some Operation Dawn sympathizers seem to be in denial about the problem. The Islamist-backed Prime Minister Omar al-Hassi has, for example, claimed that the Islamic State’s propaganda video of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians being murdered is intended to serve as a pretext for Egypt’s intervention on the side of Hifter and Operation Dignity.

Such statements have widened the gap between the Misratans fighters, who—whether Islamist or not—tend to view the Islamic State’s expansion into Sirte as a threat to their hometown, and other Operation Dawn factions in places like Tripoli. In interviews in January, several Misratan commanders acknowledged the growing threat from the Islamic State and sought to distance themselves from more radical elements in the Operation Dawn coalition.

A key question now is whether these Misratan forces have the capacity and will to confront the Islamic State while also pursuing their battle against Hifter. Although Misratan fighters from the Third Force and Center Shield have surrounded Sirte, they are reluctant to attack for fear of opening a fourth front in their exposed rear areas. (Misratans are currently deployed to the west of Tripoli, in the southern city of Sabha, and in Bin Jawad, east of Sirte). The Misratan approach toward the Islamic State in Sirte so far has avoided direct military confrontation and has instead relied on elders and religious figures to negotiate with the militants.


There are several ways in which the Islamic State could pick up increased support. The dislodging and dispersal of other hard-line Islamist factions could compel their youthful foot soldiers to join the Islamic State. Already there are signs of this happening among the Ansar al-Sharia groups in both Derna and Benghazi, although neither group has as of yet pledged its loyalty. The Islamic State in Libya may also benefit from the continued influx of foreign jihadists from Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, including hardened veterans of AQIM. Intervention by Egyptian troops on the side of Operation Dignity or the deployment of a Western peacekeeping force could provide the Islamic State with a recruiting ploy to attract an additional foreign fighter influx.

In order to reduce the likelihood of a stronger foothold for the Islamic State in Libya, there needs to be a ceasefire, as well as cooperation between more pragmatic military elements from the Misrata/Operation Dawn coalition and Operation Dignity forces, which would erode the potential space for growth of Islamic State elements.

As long as the civil war in Libya persists, the Operation Dawn faction will have incentives to downplay the Islamic State threat, to soft-pedal on confronting it or, even worse, to turn a blind eye as long as Islamic State fighters help in the battle against Hifter. For its part, Hifter’s Operation Dignity will have incentives to inflate the threat and use it as a pretext for marshaling international support against the entire Operation Dawn coalition. Both approaches are ultimately counterproductive over the long term.


Regardless of which trajectory the civil war takes, the Islamic State may find its expansion hindered by two structural factors.

First, the Islamic State will be unable to leverage the sort of broad-based sectarian grievances that have fueled Sunni support for the group in Syria and Iraq. Unlike Syria and Iraq, Libya has a homogenously Sunni population, and does not suffer from sectarian conflicts between Sunni and Shia Muslims. There is the possibility that the Islamic State could exploit the increasing resentment among tribal and communal groups that have been excluded from the new order—the deposed dictator’s Qadhadhfa tribe in the Sirte-Sabha region, for instance. But historically, jihadism in Libya has not had a distinctly tribal character, and many of the loyalist tribes are still throwing their lot in with Hifter and Operation Dignity.

Second, the Islamic State currently lacks the capacity to provide administrative and social services. In war-torn Iraq and Syria, the Islamic State was able to raise money through ransoms and control of oil. In Libya, however, oil continues to be controlled by the state-run National Oil Company, such that the government controls foreign oil sales and then distributes revenues to both the rival Tobruk- and Tripoli-based governments. Even if the Islamic State were able to seize major oil fields, it would face a different and more difficult export environment than in Iraq and Syria. It will therefore lack the capacity to provide the salaries and social services that underpin the Islamic State’s power in Syria and Iraq. That said, the group could benefit in the future from an influx of funds from outside the country, kidnapping for ransom, or the seizure of existing smuggling networks. But it may find it hard to do this given the multiplicity of other actors vying for these same revenue streams.

Moving forward, the group is instead likely to try to raise the appeal of its brand through high-profile attacks that can help it attract supporters from Libya’s splintering jihadist movements. It may also increase its attacks on the country’s oil resources in the hopes that it could tap into further economic decline to bolster its ranks.

(Source / 21.06.2015)

Written by altahrir

June 21, 2015 at 3:35 pm

Posted in Revolution Libye

Tagged with ,

Three kidnapped Tunisian diplomats freed in Libya

leave a comment »

Three of 10 Tunisian consular staff kidnapped in Libya last week have been freed and negotiations over the other hostages are continuing, a Libyan official and a Tunisian source said on Tuesday.

Gunmen stormed the Tunisian consulate on Friday in Tripoli, where armed factions have in the past seized diplomats and foreigners to exert pressure on their governments to free Libyan militants held in jails abroad.

Tunisia is one of the few countries to keep a diplomatic presence in Tripoli since an armed faction called Libya Dawn took over the capital last year and forced the internationally recognised government to flee to the east of the country.

No group has claimed responsibility for the kidnapping, but Tunisian authorities last month arrested Walid Kalib, a member of Libya Dawn. A Tunisian court refused to release Kalib, who faces kidnapping charges in Tunisia.

“Three diplomats have been freed yesterday after they were kidnapped in the capital Tripoli,” a Libyan diplomatic police official, Faraj Swhili, told Reuters. “The other seven diplomats will be released when the Libyan detainee in Tunis, Walid Kalib, is released by Tunisian authorities.”

A Tunisian government source confirmed the release, but would not give any details about negotiations or conditions set by the captors.

Gunmen have kidnapped Egyptian, Jordanian and Tunisian diplomats and citizens in the past. Most diplomats left the country after Libya Dawn, a loose alliance of former rebel brigades and Islamist-leaning groups, seized power in Tripoli.

Four years after the fall of veteran ruler Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has slowly tumbled into crisis, with former brigades of rebels turning against each in a battle for control. The United Nations is trying to coax the two main factions into a unity government.

(Source / 16.06.2015)

Written by altahrir

June 16, 2015 at 7:47 pm

Posted in Politics

Tagged with , ,

Militia storms Tunisian consulate in Libyan capital, kidnap 10 staff: Tunisia

leave a comment »

A man walks past the South Korean embassy after it was attacked by gunmen in Tripoli April 12, 2015

TUNIS: An armed group stormed the Tunisian consulate in the Libyan capital Tripoli and kidnapped 10 staff on Friday, the Tunisian Foreign Ministry said.

The ministry did not identify the armed group, but called the assault a “blatant attack on Tunisian national sovereignty and a flagrant violation of international laws.”

Tunisia is one of only a few countries which still has a mission in Tripoli, a city which is controlled by a group that has set up its own government, a rival to Libya’s internationally recognized leaders.

Tunisian authorities last month arrested Walid Kalib, a member of that rival group, Libya Dawn. On Thursday, a Tunisian court refused to release Kalib who faces kidnapping charges in Tunisia.

Libya Dawn, a loose alliance of former rebel brigades and Islamist-leaning groups, seized power in Tripoli last summer, expelling the internationally recognized government to the east.

Most countries closed their embassies during the fighting.

Relations between the North African neighbors have become increasingly tense, with Tunisia’s government worried about spillover from the chaos that continues to plague Libya four years after the overthrow of strongman Moammar Gaddafi.

(Source / 12.06.2015)

Written by altahrir

June 12, 2015 at 9:11 pm

Posted in Politics

Tagged with , ,


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 1,904 other followers